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    Home > Catalyst and Auxiliary > Polymer (Find 314 items)

    Polymer

    Polyvinyl chloride

    (9002-86-2)
    Poly(vinyl chloride), softened with a plasticizer such as esters, is used for making vinyl leather (used for handbags, briefcases, and inexpensive shoes), plastic raincoats, shower curtains, garden hoses, floor covering, and automobile upholstery.
    PVC's relatively low cost, biological and chemical resistance and workability have resulted in it being used for a wide variety of applications. It is used for sewerage pipes and other pipe applications where cost or vulnerability to corrosion limit the use of metal. With the addition of impact modifiers and stabilizers, it has become a popular material for window and door frames. By adding plasticizers, it can become flexible enough to be used in cabling applications as a wire insulator. It has been used in many other applications.
    1.Pipes
    Roughly half of the world's polyvinyl chloride resin manufactured annually is used for producing pipes for municipal and industrial applications . In the water distribution market it accounts for 66 % of the market in the US, and in sanitary sewer pipe applications, it accounts for 75 % . Its light weight, low cost, and low maintenance make it attractive. However, it must be carefully installed and bedded to ensure longitudinal cracking and overbelling does not occur. Additionally, PVC pipes can be fused together using various solvent cements, or heat-fused (butt-fusion process, similar to joining HDPE pipe), creating permanent joints that are virtually impervious to leakage.
    2.Electric cables
    PVC is commonly used as the insulation on electrical cables; PVC used for this purpose needs to be plasticized.
    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) for construction
    uPVC, also known as rigid PVC, is extensively used in the building industry as a low-maintenance material, particularly in Ireland, the United Kingdom, and in the United States. In the USA it is known as vinyl, or vinyl siding . The material comes in a range of colors and finishes, including a photo - effect wood finish, and is used as a substitute for painted wood, mostly for window frames and sills when installing double glazing in new buildings, or to replace older single-glazed windows. Other uses include fascia, and siding or weatherboarding. This material has almost entirely replaced the use of cast iron for plumbing and drainage, being used for waste pipes, drainpipes, gutters and downspouts. uPVC does not contain phthalates, since those are only added to flexible PVC, nor does it contain BPA. uPVC is known as having strong resistance against chemicals, sunlight, and oxidation from water.
    3.Clothing and furniture
    PVC has become widely used in clothing, to either create a leather-like material or at times simply for the effect of PVC. PVC clothing is common in Goth, Punk, clothing fetish and alternative fashions. PVC is cheaper than rubber, leather, and latex which it is therefore used to simulate.
    4.Healthcare
    The two main application areas for medically approved PVC compounds are flexible containers and tubing: containers used for blood and blood components for urine or for ostomy products and tubing used for blood taking and blood giving sets, catheters, heartlung bypass sets, haemodialysis set etc. In Europe the consumption of PVC for medical devices is approximately 85.000 tons every year. Almost one third of plastic based medical devices are made from PVC.
    5.Flooring
    Flexible PVC flooring is inexpensive and used in a variety of buildings covering the home, hospitals, offices, schools, etc. Complex and 3D designs are possible due to the prints that can be created which are then protected by a clear wear layer. A middle vinyl foam layer also gives a comfortable and safe feel. The smooth, tough surface of the upper wear layer prevents the build up of dirt which prevents microbes from breeding in areas that need to be kept sterile, such as hospitals and clinics.
    6.Other applications
    PVC has been used for a host of consumer products of relatively smaller volume compared to the industrial and commercial applications described above. Another of its earliest mass-market consumer applications was to make vinyl records. More recent examples include wallcovering, greenhouses, home playgrounds, foam and other toys, custom truck toppers (tarpaulins), ceiling tiles and other kinds of interior cladding.

    Poly(acrylic acid) Macromolecule

    (9003-01-4)
    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA or Carbomer) is generic name for synthetic high molecular weight polymers of acrylic acid. They may be homopolymers of acrylic acid, crosslinked with an allyl ether pentaerythritol, allyl ether of sucrose or allyl ether of propylene. In a water solution at neutral pH, PAA is an anionic polymer, i.e. many of the side chains of PAA will lose their protons and acquire a negative charge. This makes PAAs polyelectrolytes, with the ability to absorb and retain water and swell to many times their original volume. Dry PAAs are found in the market as white and fluffy powders. Carbomer codes (910, 934, 940, 941 and 934P) are an indication of molecular weight and the specific components of the polymer. For many applications PAAs are used in form of alkali metal or ammonium salts, e.g. sodium polyacrylate.

    Hydrolyzed Polymaleic Anhydride

    (26099-09-2)
    Hydrolyzed Polymaleic Anhydride has high stability and temperature resistance. It also has a significant solubility limit effect at a pH of 8.3. It can chelate with calcium, magnesium and other plasma ions in the water and has lattice distortion ability, which can improve the fluidity of sludge. Especially suitable for scale inhibition of high temperature water system such as boiler furnace water. It can be used as sediment inhibitors, scale inhibitors, etc. in oil field water pipelines, circulating cooling water systems and flash evaporation seawater desalination. It can also be used as a basic industrial detergent.

    Poly(1,2-Dihydro-2,2,4-Trimethylquinoline) (Tmq)

    (26780-96-1)
    Poly(1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline) is an industrial catalyst or plastics and rubber additives, and its application examples are as follows: preparing a material with sound insulation function, the sound insulation material includes The components are 100 parts of nitrile rubber, zinc oxide, stearic acid, magnesium oxide, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline polymer, graphite powder, carboxyl silicone oil, accelerator, vulcanization Agent, wherein the material includes components in parts by weight: 100 parts of nitrile rubber, 4-7 parts of zinc oxide Chemicalbook, 0.5-1.5 parts of stearic acid, 8-12 parts of magnesium oxide, 2,2,4-tri 1.5-3.5 parts of methyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline polymer, 7-12 parts of graphite powder, 3-6 parts of carboxy silicone oil, 0.5-1.5 parts of accelerator, 2-6 parts of vulcanizing agent. The unit volume of the material is lighter than other sound insulation materials, which can reduce the weight of use, reduce the overall quality of the applied components, have good sound insulation and attraction performance, and have long-term stable and reliable sound insulation attraction performance.

    Polyparpylene Fiber

    (9003-07-0)
    Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging and labeling, textiles (e.g., ropes, thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene, it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents, bases and acids.Polypropylene has a relatively slippery "low energy surface" that means that many common glues will not form adequate joints. Joining of polypropylene is often done using welding processes.In 2013, the global market for polypropylene was about 55 million metric tons.

    Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin

    (9003-35-4)
    Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde. Used as the basis for Bakelite, PFs were the first commercial synthetic resins (plastics). They have been widely used for the production of molded products including billiard balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. They were at one time the primary material used for the production of circuit boards but have been largely replaced with epoxy resins and fiberglass cloth, as with fire-resistant FR-4 circuit board materials.There are two main production methods. One reacts phenol and formaldehyde directly to produce a thermosetting network polymer, while the other restricts the formaldehyde to produce a prepolymer known as novolac which can be moulded and then cured with the addition of more formaldehyde and heat. There are many variations in both production and input materials that are used to produce a wide variety of resins for special purposes.

    Poly Methyl Methacrylate

    (9011-14-7)
    1. Biomedical
    PMMA has been used in the area of biomedical applications, which involves the preparation of bone cements for drug delivery/release and cranioplasty. The qualities that made the polymer a potential material for these applications include: non-toxicity, less cost, easy processability, compatibility, minimal inflammatory reactions with tissues, and greater fracture resistance, especially when used in cranioplasty.
    PMMA has also been used to widen the applications of chitosan in various fields that include biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Zuhair et al. reported the successful grafting of a PMMA/chitosan blend. The results indicated an increase in the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and flexural modulus. The degradation, porosity, and water absorbency of the blend in synthetic body fluid (SBF) with a pH of 7.4 increased with an increase in the chitosan percentage and immersion time in SBF. These behaviors exhibited by the PMMA/chitosan blend illustrate its potentials for drug release applications.
    2.Molecular Separation
    Molecular separations in chemistry can be achieved in an advanced way by the use of chromatographic techniques, which involve the use of a stationary phase (inert solid support) and mobile phase (usually solvent or mixture of solvents). The common solid supports used are inorganic materials such as silica and alumina, but they have low patronage due to their disadvantages in separating some organic molecules, and limited modifications for maximum efficiency. Therefore, both natural and synthetic polymers have recently been used to replace the inorganic materials. PMMA is the most promising synthetic polymer for applications in molecular separation due to its low cost, compatibility, ease of modification, and processability.
    3.Optical applications
    Optical science is relevant and studied in many disciplines, including engineering, medicine, pure science, and astronomy. Practical applications are found in lenses, microscopes, lasers, fibers, and polymers, to name a few. The optical activity of any material is the result exhibited by that material when interacting with light and the refractive index is the measure of that activity. The optical applications of PMMA are due to its refractive index, good resistance to UV light, chemical durability, and good mechanical properties.
    Organic polymers are usually cheap, lightweight, and easily processed substrates, and are therefore good for immobilizing semiconductors for heterogeneous photocatalytic applications. Camara et al. revealed the investigation of eleven synthetic polymers susceptible to coating with TiO2 for exposure to solar radiation, with and without the TiO2 layer, for 150 days to study the weathering. They observed that only the PMMA retains good optical and mechanical properties of the Titania after natural weathering. Therefore, PMMA is the best candidate for the immobilization of TiO2 for photocatalytic treatment applications.
    4.Polymer conductivity and electrolytes
    Most polymers are electrical insulators. However, conducting polymers can be prepared using an insulating polymer and electrically conductive fillers called dopants. The electrical properties of PMMA doped with conducting materials under various experimental conditions including photo-induced changes, has been studied. PMMA was used as an organic insulator, while the PVA-PAA-glycerol was a semiconducting polymer. Aluminum electrodes were used as bottom and top electrodes for the fabricated devices. Finally, organic memory devices were prepared based on the Au-PtAg nanoparticles as charge storage elements. Herein, PMMA was used as the organic insulator.
    A polymer electrolyte membrane for battery application must play the following roles: must enable positive ion transport such as Li+ between the electrodes, must block the electron transport, and must be rigid to prevent direct contact between the electrodes. The application of PMMA in the polymer electrolyte was due to the amorphous nature for porosity’s sake and the mechanical strength it has for the provision of the rigidity to the polymer electrolyte membrane.
    5.Sensor application
    In search of the production of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using a high conductivity polymer gel electrolyte, a suitable polymeric material was needed to be a host matrix in the composite. Therefore, PMMA was found to be a good and compatible polymer for this purpose. This was attributed to its mechanical strength, compatibility, and optical clarity.
    6.Solar and nanotechnology applications
    Due to the wider application of nanocomposites in the field of nanotechnology, many researchers focused their attention on nanocomposites, their fabrication, and applications. Perween et al. reported the use of PMMA and graphite to fabricate plastic chip electrodes (PCEs) via a simple solution casting method. This characterization was made using microscopy (SEM and AFM) as well as thermal properties (TGA), and mechanical and electrical properties. The fabricated electrode was economically inexpensive, multipurpose, and dispensable for various applications.

    Polycarbonate

    (25037-45-0)
    Used as electronic and electrical parts, mechanical textile industry parts, building structural parts, aviation transparent materials and parts, foam structural materials, etc.
    Polymers generally refer to high molecular compounds, which are referred to as macromolecules or macromolecules. They generally refer to compounds with a relative molecular mass of up to several thousand to several million. mixture. According to the source, it can be divided into two categories: natural polymers and synthetic polymers. According to the performance classification, it can be divided into three categories: plastic, rubber and fiber. ""Polymer"" on Echemi mainly supplies raw materials for Polymer.
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