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    Formic Acid structure

    Formic Acid

    • CAS No:


    • Formula:


    • Synonyms:

      Methanoic Acid

    • China Export:

      From 2018.11 to 2019.11, total export volume of Formic Acid from China was 194,374,786KG while total export value was $83,432,092. The biggest proportion of exporting volume in the last 12 months was 12.55% in 2019.03.

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    Formic acid, or methanoic acid, is the first member of the homologous series identified as fatty acids with the general formula RCOOH. Formic acid was obtained first from the red ant; itscommon name is derived from the family name for ants, Formi- cidae. This substance also occurs naturally in bees and wasps, and is presumed to be responsible for the "sting" of these insects.
    Formic acid has a pungent, penetrating odor. It may be synthesized from anhydrous sodium formate and concentrated H2

    Basic Attributes

    • 64-18-6

    • CH2O2

    • 46.02540

    • 46.00550

    • 37.30000

    • 0.3367



    • Colorless liquid with a pungent odor

    • 1.22

    • 8.2-8.4 °C(lit.)

    • 101 °C

    • 133 °F

    • n20/D 1.377

    • Miscible

    • Storage Room low temperature ventilation drying ,Separate storage with austic soda category, food additives cyanide

    • Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 4.6

    • 1.03 (vs air)

    • Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong bases, strong oxidizing agents and powdered metals, furfuryl alcohol. Combustible. Hygroscopic. Pressure may build up in tightly closed bottles, so bottles should be opened carefully and vented periodically.

    Safety Information

    • II

    • 8

    • 2915110000

    • UN 1198 3/PG 3

    • 2

    • R35

    • S36/37-S45-S26-S23-S36/37/39

    • LP8925000

    • C

    • P210-P260-P280-P304 + P340 + P310-P305 + P351 + P338-P370 + P378

    • H226-H302-H314-H331

    • vol% in air: 181

    • LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 1100 orally; 145 i.v. (Malorny)

    Product Usage

    Acid is one of the basic organic chemical raw materials. It is widely used in pesticides, leather, textiles, printing and dyeing, medicine and rubber industries. It can also be used to prepare various solvents, plasticizers, rubber coagulants, animal feed additives and new processes to synthesize insulin Wait. In my country~"s formic acid consumption, the pharmaceutical industry accounts for approximately 45%, the chemical industry accounts for approximately 30%, and other sectors such as light industry and textiles account for approximately 25%. Formic acid is one of my country~"s important export chemical products. At present, all formic acid production in my country adopts sodium formate method. Formic acid is often used as a substitute for cheap, less volatile and corrosive inorganic acids, and is widely used in the light industry. In the textile and printing and dyeing industries, formic acid is used as an agent for eliminating nitrous acid gas produced by the Indicotin sodium nitrite method, as a dyeing aid for weak acid dyes and neutral complex dyes, and for dyeing nylon with reactive dyes. Formic acid will not remain on the fabric during printing and dyeing. It has stronger acidity than acetic acid and can reduce hexamedium chromium. Therefore, it can improve the utilization of dye in the chromium mordant dyeing process. The use of formic acid instead of sulfuric acid can avoid the degradation of cellulose, and the acidity is moderate, and the dyeing is familiar, so it is an excellent dye aid. Formic acid, as a substitute for inorganic acids, is used for decolorization, depilation, neutralization of lime in tanning and prevention of mildew in wet leather. Using formic acid as a coagulant can raise the quality of high natural rubber, reduce production costs, and can also be used for the regeneration of waste rubber. The use of formic acid as a feed additive has great potential in silage. Formic acid has the function of inhibiting or preventing the growth of mold. It can change the natural fermentation form of feed. Fatty acid is often added to improve the anti-mold effect. Foraging cows treated with formic acid can prevent milk loss in winter, and the fattening effect has also been significantly improved. In the food industry, formic acid is used for disinfection and antisepsis in the wine industry, as a cleaning and disinfectant for cans, as a preservative for fruit juices and food. A large number of derivatives of formic acid are intermediates of medicines, pesticides, dyes, fragrances, solvents, used in the manufacture of borneol, aminopyrine, caffeine, vitamin B1, analgin, trimethoprim, triflurazine, tricyclazole, dimethyl Base formamide, etc. Among formic acid derivatives, substituted formamides and formates are widely used in industry (for formamide derivatives, see the item). The esters of formic acid are widely used in the perfume industry, such as: ethyl formate-fruit flavors such as peach and raspberry; isoamyl formate-fruit flavor, leather flavor; hexyl formate-apple flavor; heptyl formate ——Apricot, plum, peach and other fruit essences; n-decyl formate—for orange blossom essence and iris oil; benzyl formate—for frangipani and other floral and soap essences; cinnamyl formate—for frangipani and moonshine etc. Use; citronellyl formate-for rose, osmanthus, wild lily and other flavors; syringyl formate-for carnation flavor, etc.; geranyl formate-rose, orange blossom, gerbera and other flavors; formic acid Camphor esters-lavender, bergamot and other flavors; menthyl formate-cosmetic flavors, spray flavors; phenethyl formate-white rose, orchid, chrysanthemum and other flavors; thyme formate-cosmetic fragrances. Used as analytical reagent, such as reducing agent, to prepare buffer solution. It is also used in the preparation of pure carbon monoxide and pesticides. Sterilization and mildew prevention in pulp manufacturing. It can also manufacture leather softeners, rubber coagulants, mordants for printing and dyeing, dyeing and treating agents for fibers and paper, plasticizers and animal feed additives. It can also be used as a preservative in cosmetics. The maximum allowable content in cosmetics is 5% (acid). Formic acid and its aqueous solution can dissolve many metals, metal oxides, hydroxides and salts, and the formate generated can be dissolved in water, so it can be used as a chemical cleaning agent. Formic acid does not contain chloride ions and can be used to clean equipment containing stainless steel. Used in the manufacture of chemicals, rubber coagulants, textiles, printing and dyeing, electroplating, etc.

    Production Methods

    1. Sodium formate solution of carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide in the 160-200 ° C and 2MPa pressure reaction of sodium formate, and then sulfuric acid hydrolysis, distillation that was finished. 2. Methanol carbonyl synthesis method (also known as methyl formate method) methanol and carbon monoxide in the presence of catalyst sodium methanol to form methyl formate, and then by hydrolysis to formic acid and methanol. Methanol can be recycled into the methyl formate reactor, formic acid and then by distillation can be different specifications of the product. 3. Formamide method of carbon monoxide and ammonia in methanol solution reaction formamide, and then in the presence of sulfuric acid hydrolysis of formic acid, while the by-product of ammonium sulfate. Consumption of raw materials fixed: methanol 31kg / t, carbon monoxide 702kg / t, ammonia 314kg / t, sulfuric acid 1010kg / t. In addition, butane light oil oxidation method is mainly used to produce acetic acid, formic acid as a by-product recovery, in the research phase of the method of carbon monoxide and water direct synthesis method. Refining method: anhydrous formic acid can be obtained directly under reduced pressure fractionation, fractional cooling with ice water when the condensation. For aqueous formic acid, boric anhydride or anhydrous copper sulfate can be used as desiccant. Phosphorus pentoxide and calcium chloride with the role of formic acid, should not be used as a desiccant. For reagent grade 88% formic acid, phthalic anhydride can be used 6 hours after the distillation of the way to remove the water. Further purification can be carried out by fractional crystallization. Formic acid and acetic acid mixed together, can be added to carry out azeotropic distillation of aliphatic hydrocarbons separation. 4. The appropriate amount of carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide in the 160 ~ 200 ° C reaction of sodium formate, the neutralization, distillation, condensation derived. Or in triethylamine aqueous solution, palladium complex as a catalyst, carbon dioxide and hydrogen at 140 ~ 160 ° C in the reaction. 5. Sodium formate and concentrated sulfuric acid role in industrial grade formic acid, and then use activated carbon adsorption vacuum distillation system in order to obtain pure, but also by adding B2O 3 CuSO4 was distilled under reduced pressure. 6. Carbon dioxide catalyst in the palladium complex, in triethylamine aqueous solution, carbon dioxide and hydrogen at 140 ~ 160 ° C reaction derived. Reaction: 7. The main use of synthetic acidification and high-pressure catalytic method. Synthesis of acidification method: the use of coke combustion of carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide synthesis of sodium, and then sulfuric acid, derived by distillation. High-pressure catalytic method: the carbon monoxide and water vapor in the presence of catalyst, derived from the reaction under high temperature and pressure. 8. Method: Formic acid and phosphorus pentoxide mixed, vacuum distillation, repeated 5 to 10 times before the availability of anhydrous formic acid, but the amount is low, time-consuming, will cause some decomposition. Formic acid and boric acid drunk distillation, simple operation, the better. The boric acid is shaken at high temperature dehydration in Shanghai to no longer produce bubbles, the resulting melt down on the iron one, set the dryer cooling, and then ground into a powder. The boric acid phenolic fine powder added to the formic acid, placed a few days to form lumps, clear liquid separation of vacuum distillation, collecting 22-25 ℃ / 12-18mm fractions for the product. The retort should be a fully ground joint and protected by a drying tube.


    China Formic Acid Export Data

    Data referenced from General Administration of Customs,P.R.China

    2018.11-2019.11 China - America  Formic Acid Export Data

    From 2018.11 to 2019.11, total export volume of Formic Acid from China to America was 3,828,098KG while total export value was $1,798,090. The biggest proportion of exporting volume in the last 12 months was 20.68% in 2019.08.

    2018.11-2019.11 China Formic Acid Export Data

    From 2018.11 to 2019.11, total export volume of Formic Acid from China was 194,374,786KG while total export value was $83,432,092. The biggest proportion of exporting volume in the last 12 months was 12.55% in 2019.03.

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