On Echemi
A hyaluronic acid overall explanation

Hyaluronic Acid


Hyaluronic acid, also known as HA. It is widely found in the human body and has the highest content in tissues such as the umbilical cord and joint synovial fluid. It is the main component of connective tissues such as human intercellular substance, vitreous body, and joint synovial fluid. This substance plays an important physiological function in the body of retaining water, maintaining extracellular space, regulating osmotic pressure, lubricating, and promoting cell repair. It has excellent water retention, lubricity, viscoelasticity, biodegradability and biocompatibility, and is used in medicine, food, beauty and skin care.


  • HA is a linear, non-branched polymer composed of disaccharides repeatedly and alternately connected: ß(1,4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and ß(1,3)-D-glucuronic acid . Unlike other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that are high in ECM, such as heparin and chondroitin sulfate, HA is non-sulfated. The length of the HA chain ranges from ~0.200 to 10 MDA, and the most common size ranges from 2 to 5 MDa6,7,8.
  • HA dissolves in water to form a viscoelastic solution. As the concentration increases, the viscosity of the solution increases (10 mg/ml viscosity is 5000 times that of water. However, under the action of shear stress, the viscosity drops rapidly while maintaining elasticity. This feature This makes HA an ideal bio-lubricant. The actual structure of HA in ECM varies, but it is usually a random coil with extended structure and significant intrinsic rigidity. The hydrogen bonds between adjacent sugars constitute the biological properties of HA. The most important force. However, the in vitro physical properties of HA are also significantly affected by ionic strength.

Professional Perspect - Bloomage Biotech

The History of Hyaluronic Acid
  • 1934

    HA was first separated from the vitreous body of a bull's eye and named after the vitreous body (= hyaluronic acid) and uronic acid.

  • 1930-40

    HA is isolated from synovial fluid, skin, umbilical cord, tumor and male chicken crown.

  • 1951

    The chemical structure of HA is determined

  • 1970s

    Cartilage proteoglycan proved to have a special interaction with HA

  • 1993

    Discovery and cloning of group A streptococcal hyaluronic acid synthase

  • 1999

    First purification of active hyaluronic acid synthase

  • Currently

    HA is now mainly produced by bacterial fermentation


Functions of Hyaluronic Acid


Moisturizing skin




Nourish the skin


Promote wound healing


Lubricate joints, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory

  • Pharmaceutical

  • Cosmetics

  • Food

  • pharmaceutical.jpg
    Viscoelasticity supplement therapy (medicine for improving knee arthritis, osteoarthritis and frozen shoulder). Viscoelastic filling (soft tissue filler). Viscoelastic barrier (anti-adhesion after operation). Viscoelastic protection (ophthalmic viscoelastic agent, contact lens protector). Drug carrier.
  • cosmetics.jpg
    Used in skin care, hair, makeup, cleaning and other products.
  • food.jpg
    Used in health foods such as capsules, tablets, granules, oral liquids, or ordinary foods such as beverages and candies.

Sodium Hyaluronate

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Sodium Hyaluronate 95% from Shandong Focuschem BioTech Co., Ltd.: Food Grade Sodium Hyaluronate 95% has been widely used in the industry of nutraceuticals in US and EU. The oral sodium hyaluronate can support Hyaluronic Acid leveles in the body. Sodium Hyaluronate 95% can be digested and absorbed, making the skin moist, smooth, soft and elastic; delaying aging and preventing the occurrence of arthritis and brain atrophy.

Market Outlook

In 2018, China accounted for 86% of the global hyaluronic acid raw material production capacity, with a market size of approximately 3.07 billion yuan. In the next few years, the global hyaluronic acid raw material market will still maintain a compound growth rate of 18%. It is estimated that the global sales of hyaluronic acid raw materials will reach 1,150 tons in 2023.From the perspective of raw materials, the global sales of hyaluronic acid raw materials in 2018 were 500 tons, of which food grade and cosmetics grade accounted for 46% and 50% respectively. In 2014-18, the compound growth rate of the sales of food grade, cosmetic grade, and pharmaceutical grade raw materials was 29.4%, 18.0%, and 22.1%, respectively, maintaining a relatively high growth rate.

Molecular Weight and Application

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