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Amino acid, fulvic acid, humic acid: the role and difference of the three major

Echemi 2020-07-22

In the branch of agrochemical products, there is an ancient and novel category-biostimulants.
According to the definition of the European Biostimulant Industry Committee (EBIC): substances containing certain ingredients and/or microorganisms, when applied to crops or around the rhizosphere, can promote the natural physiological metabolism of crops and enhance the absorption of nutrients And use, enhance the resistance to abiotic stress, improve quality and yield.
Divided by source: including humic acid, amino acids, small molecule peptides, oligosaccharides, seaweed polysaccharides, chitosan, molasses fermentation products, soil beneficial microorganisms and their metabolites, alkaloids (betaine), etc.
Now let's focus on the functions and differences of amino acids, fulvic acid and humic acid.

Amino acid

Amino acid is a general term for a class of organic compounds containing amino and carboxyl groups. The basic unit of biologically functional macromolecular protein is the basic material that constitutes the protein required for animal and plant nutrition. It is an organic compound containing basic amino groups and acidic carboxyl groups. The amino group attached to the α-carbon is an α-amino acid. The amino acids composing protein are all α-amino acids. One of the roles in plants is to directly participate in various physiological activities of plants and the synthesis of plant endogenous hormones.

The functional role of amino acids (fertilizer)

Amino acid fertilizer is based on plant amino acids, using its huge surface activity and adsorption retention capacity. When used as fertilizer, it will add some trace elements (calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, Boron, molybdenum, etc.), organic and inorganic compounds formed by chelation (complexation); it can not only maintain the slow release and full utilization of a large number of elements, but also ensure the stability and long-term effect of trace elements; it can enhance plant respiration, Improve plant redox process and promote plant metabolism. At the same time, it can also promote the formation of photosynthesis and chlorophyll, and obviously promote and activate the physiological and biochemical processes such as oxidative enzyme activity, seed germination, nutrient absorption, root growth and development. Especially its affinity with plants is unmatched by any other substance.
Overall, the functions of amino acids are as follows:
① Provide basic ingredients for protein synthesis.
②Provide high-quality nitrogen source, carbon source and energy for plants.
③ Provide nutrition for rhizosphere microorganisms (saprophytes).
④ Passivate a variety of heavy metal elements, reduce their toxic and side effects, and reduce fertilizer damage; it also has a certain inhibitory effect on nitrate.
⑤Adversity resistance: Improve crop tolerance to drought, high temperature, salt stress, etc., especially small molecule peptides (a small amount of amino acid polymer) can scavenge free radicals, anti-oxidation, anti-heavy metal poisoning, and have a strong role in repairing crop diseases.
⑥ Complexing (chelating) a variety of middle and trace elements to provide plants with stable chelated (complexed) mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, iron, etc.), which can be quickly absorbed and utilized by plants;

Fulvic Acid

Fulvic Acid (FA for short) is the water-soluble part of humic acid with the smallest molecular weight and the highest content of active groups. Its functional groups interact and reflect a variety of specific physical and chemical characteristics. After entering the plant body, it can It exerts a variety of physiological functions, acts on the metabolism of the plant body by inhibiting or activating enzymes, reflecting obvious stimulating effects, and exerts a therapeutic effect through the secretion, regulation and improvement of the body's immune function by endogenous hormones.

The functional role of fulvic acid

① Stimulate plant activity: An unknown growth-promoting factor with high biological activity function can enhance the activity of oxidase and other metabolic activities in the plant. Although fulvic acid does not contain hormones, it exhibits similar effects to chemically synthesized auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and other plant hormones during use, and it has a comprehensive effect on the growth and development of plants. Regulation effect.
②Enhance crop resistance: Fulvic acid has a significant function of resistance to cold and drought.
③Slow-release fertilizers: improve the utilization of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and improve soil aggregate structure.
④ Chelated micronutrient elements: strong complexing ability, improve the absorption and operation of plant trace elements, so that it can be better utilized by plants.
⑤Control plant diseases and enhance disease resistance: Fulvic acid is used as a pesticide synergist to improve the control effect, but it cannot replace pesticides.
⑥Flocculation resistance, buffering, good solubility: strong interaction with metal ions. Its anti-flocculation ability is significantly higher than that of humic acid and similar products. It can be dissolved in any acid-base water with pH 1~14, flocculates without precipitation in high calcium magnesium hard water saturated brine, and has good stability and strong electrolyte resistance.

Humic acid

Humic Acid (Humic Acid, abbreviated HA) is a type of organic matter that is the remains of animals and plants, mainly plant remains, after the decomposition and transformation of microorganisms, as well as a series of complex geochemical reaction processes and accumulation. It is a macromolecular organic acid composed of aromatics and various functional groups. It has good physiological activity and functions such as absorption, complexation, and exchange.

The functional role of humic acid

① Stimulate physiological metabolism
Humic acid contains a variety of active functional genes, which can enhance the activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase in crops, stimulate physiological metabolism, and promote growth and development. For example, humic acid can promote early germination of seeds, and the emergence rate is high, especially at low temperatures; it can stimulate the division and growth of the extreme meristem cells of the root system, so that the seedlings can grow quickly, and the roots will increase, the roots will increase, and the roots will elongate. Increase the ability of crops to absorb water and nutrients. Therefore, the nutrient supply is sufficient, the crop stems are strong, the branches and leaves are luxuriant, the photosynthesis is enhanced, the nutrient transfer to the fruit body is accelerated, and the fruit is colored and mature in advance.
②Change the characteristics of fertilizer
Humic acid contains functional groups such as carboxyl group and phenolic hydroxyl group. It has strong ion exchange and adsorption capacity, which can reduce the loss of ammonium nitrogen and improve the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrohumic acid, which is oxidized and degraded, can inhibit urease activity and reduce urea volatilization. The degraded nitrohumic acid increases the distance that phosphorus moves in the soil, inhibits the fixation of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil, converts available phosphorus into late-available phosphorus, and promotes the absorption of phosphorus by roots. Humic acid and insoluble trace elements can undergo a chelation reaction to form a humic acid trace element chelate that has good solubility and can be absorbed by crops, thereby facilitating the absorption of trace elements by roots and leaves.
③Improve soil structure
Humic acid can promote the formation of soil aggregate structure, adjust soil pH, adjust soil water, fertilizer, gas, heat and other conditions, increase soil exchange capacity, achieve acid-base balance, improve soil water and fertilizer retention capacity, and promote soil microbial activities. Increase the number of aerobic bacteria, actinomycetes and cellulose decomposing bacteria, accelerate the decomposition and transformation of organic matter, promote the release of nutrients, and facilitate crops to absorb nutrients.
④Enhance the resistance to stress
Humic acid can reduce the stomata opening strength of plant leaves and reduce leaf transpiration, thereby reducing water consumption, improving the water status of plants, ensuring normal growth and development of crops under drought conditions, and enhancing drought resistance. Humic acid is mostly amphoteric colloid with high surface activity and has an inhibitory effect on fungi. It can enhance the cold resistance of crops, is easily adsorbed by cell membranes, changes cell membrane permeability, promotes the absorption of inorganic nutrients, prevents rot, root rot, and reduces pests and diseases .
⑤Improve the quality of the fruit
Humic acid can form complexes or chelates with trace elements, increase the amount of trace elements running from roots to leaves or other parts, adjust the ratio and balance of macro elements and trace elements, and strengthen enzymes to sugar, starch, and protein. , Fat and various vitamin synthesis operations. It can promote the activity of enzymes, convert polysaccharides into soluble monosaccharides, increase the synthesis and accumulation of starch, protein, and fatty substances, accelerate the movement of various metabolic primary products from stems and leaves or roots to fruits and seeds, and make the fruits plump and thick.

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