Microbial fermentation of Chinese medicine is a key process for Chinese medicine to exert its pharmacological effects. Probiotics fermented traditional Chinese medicine has the functions of increasing the content of active ingredients, enhancing the efficacy, expanding the indications, reducing the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine, and regulating the intestinal flora.
The modern fermentation technology of traditional Chinese medicine is developed by combining traditional fermentation technology and microbiology. The usual fermentation methods include solid fermentation, liquid fermentation and bidirectional fermentation.
01 Types of Chinese medicine fermentation
Solid state fermentation
Solid fermentation has a long history and was developed on the basis of traditional koji making technology. Traditional Chinese medicinal materials are used as nutrient fermentation substrates. Usually one or several probiotics are used as fermentation strains. From the perspective of therapeutic effects, it is obtained from solid fermentation. The preparation is no less than liquid fermentation, and there are many limitations in fermenting solid fermentation under certain conditions. For example, the fermentation strains used are limited to strains that grow in low humidity conditions. The slow fermentation speed leads to lower yields. The fermentation system is open and easy to contaminate the product quality. There are no scientific indicators for the fermentation endpoint and quality control. Experience operation.
Liquid fermentation is developed from the production process of antibiotics. It is also called submerged fermentation. The strains are activated and cultivated to a good growth state, and then inoculated into the culture broth. The culture broth is fully mixed with a certain ratio of culture medium and Chinese medicinal materials. , Cultivation and fermentation under suitable oxygen content and temperature, the product is composed of two parts of bacteria and fermentation broth. After the Chinese medicinal materials are fermented, the effective ingredients increase and the biotransformation effect is improved. Compared with solid fermentation, liquid fermentation has the advantages of automatic fermentation, low production cost, high product stability, high material transfer rate, quantified production conditions, and can be applied to industrial production.
Probiotics joint fermentation
Probiotics are used to ferment traditional Chinese medicines. Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, yeast, Bifidobacterium, Bacillus, etc. are common probiotics, which have been reported in the fields of disease treatment, cosmetics, health care products and animal husbandry. According to the growth conditions of the strains, it can be divided into aerobic fermentation, facultative anaerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation. When different types of probiotics are involved in the fermentation, their optimal pH may be different, and the lactic acid accumulated in the fermentation broth will run out of oxygen. It can inhibit the normal growth of aerobic bacteria, so multi-stage combined fermentation, that is, a combination of two or more fermentation methods, can be used to achieve mutual benefit between the strains and improve production efficiency and active ingredient content.
02 Advantages of Probiotics Fermented Chinese Medicine
Microbial fermentation of traditional Chinese medicine has changed the traditional operation technology of decoction, boiling, boiling, refining, steaming and soaking. Its advantages are also in the following aspects:
Improve the efficacy of Chinese medicine
Probiotics produce cellulase, cellobiase, protease, galactase, carbohydrate active enzymes, etc. in the metabolism, which can lyse the cell walls of medicinal plants, reduce the encapsulation effect of polysaccharides and other active ingredients, and precipitate more Active ingredients such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, organic acids and terpenoids enhance the efficacy of the medicine.
The traditional Chinese medicine crotonic heat, toxic, diarrhea, and clearing the orifice. After the acute toxicity test method was used to detect the toxicity of croton, it was found that the toxicity of fermented croton was reduced. After rhubarb is acted on by yeast, the proportion of free anthraquinones in total anthraquinones increases, the proportion of bound anthraquinones decreases, the intestinal irritation is reduced, and the purgative function is weakened. In addition, it has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. After fermenting it with fungi, it not only maintains the original traditional Chinese medicine effect, but also reduces its toxicity.
Produce new active substances and expand indications
The probiotic Bacillus subtilis was used to ferment the roots of the Chinese herbal medicine Panax notoginseng. After isolation and identification, it was found that the probiotic bacteria produced a new ginsenoside Rh4 component after fermentation.
Improve the taste of Chinese medicine
Amino acids, nucleic acids, biotin, lactic acid, B vitamins, trace elements and other ingredients produced in the process of probiotic fermentation of Chinese medicines. The metabolites of these beneficial bacteria can be retained in the product to provide patients with richer nutritional support; Lactic acid, acetic acid and other sour substances, ethyl acetate, phenethyl acetate and other ester fragrance substances, in addition to some higher alcohols, improve the taste of traditional Chinese medicine.
Enrich the nutritional structure of Chinese medicine
Amino acids, nucleic acids, biotin, lactic acid, B vitamins, trace elements and other ingredients produced during the fermentation of Chinese medicines by probiotics. The metabolites of these beneficial bacteria can be retained in the product to provide patients with richer nutritional support.
03 Application fields of probiotics fermented traditional Chinese medicine
Probiotics fermented traditional Chinese medicine is used in anti-tumor, lowering blood sugar, liver disease, intestinal disease, dermatitis, osteoporosis, health care products, cosmetics, animal husbandry, etc. The characteristics of this fermentation method are that more effective target components can be obtained to improve the efficacy, produce secondary metabolites, expand the indications, improve the utilization rate of traditional Chinese medicine, save costs, enrich the nutritional structure of traditional Chinese medicine products, and reduce traditional Chinese medicine. The toxicity and the taste of traditional Chinese medicine products are improved.
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