As a new environmental management tool, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) traces and qualitatively and quantitatively analyses the whole process of product or process from raw material acquisition to manufacturing, product use and post-processing. The environmental impact assessment of green industrial coatings in the life cycle can provide important data support and theoretical basis for the ecological design of green coatings industry. For green paint products, the environmental impact factors in their life cycle mainly include: process energy consumption, cleaner production, VOC content and emission, protection performance and duration, equipment and painting line modification, waste discharge and treatment of paint.
Energy consumption in the production of coatings mainly includes electricity and water energy. The production of water-borne coatings uses both electricity and water. The production of water-borne coatings usually takes longer, and its power consumption is slightly higher than that of high solid and solvent-free coatings. The energy consumption in the production of high solid and solvent-free coatings mainly involves electricity. The energy consumption of traditional solvent-based coatings is similar to that of high solid and solvent-free coatings. Comprehensive analysis shows that the process energy consumption of these four coatings is comparable.
Water-borne coatings use water as medium and contain almost no solvents. Solvent-free coatings do not contain (or contain very small) solvents, high solid coatings contain a small amount of solvents, while traditional solvent-based coatings generally contain more volatile solvents. Therefore, from the perspective of cleaner production, solvent-free coatings have obvious advantages. Although VOCs in waterborne coatings are less volatile in production, in order to widen the construction window, it will inevitably lead to a large number of adjusting solvents and film-forming additives. The introduction of these materials will bring new challenges to wastewater discharge. The cleaning solution of solvent-based coatings is basically recyclable, but VOCs in production need to be organized. Emissions. Compared with traditional solvent-based coatings, green coatings have obvious advantages in environmental protection, and the impact evaluation of environmental protection should be based on specific VOCs content. Because VOCs are the most important environmental protection characteristics, the weight of this item is set to 2 in the evaluation process to highlight the importance of VOCs.
From the perspective of green life cycle, the protective performance and duration of coatings are important indicators. Long service life can reduce the number of repairing coatings, which is conducive to environmental protection, energy saving and emission reduction, and save resources. Due to the influence of technology and many other factors, the protection range of waterborne coatings is basically confined to the environment below C3 or C4, which is mainly applicable to the anti-corrosion field of some light industries. The service life is also short, generally within 10 years; while high solid coatings, solvent-free coatings and traditional solvent-based coatings can be used in heavy-duty anticorrosion areas with high anticorrosion requirements, such as C5 industrial or marine environment. The service life of these coatings can reach 20A. The existing coating lines are basically built to produce high solid or solvent-free coatings for the production and construction of traditional solvent-based coatings. Usually, only part of the pipelines and spraying equipment of the coating lines need to be changed, while water-based coatings need to be produced, the existing equipment, pipelines and construction technology are basically the same. The plant's temperature control and exhaust system will also be revamped and modified. Therefore, as far as water-borne coatings are concerned, the investment cost of the renovation of existing plant and painting line is relatively large. A large amount of wastewater will be produced in the production of waterborne coatings. It contains organic co-solvents and emulsifiers, which are difficult to separate in the later treatment process, and will pollute the water and soil environment. A certain amount of waste gas will be produced in the production and painting process of high solid containing coatings, while the traditional solvent-based coatings production process produces the most waste gas, and the cost of waste gas treatment will be much higher. Therefore, water-borne coatings and traditional solvent-based coatings are in a weak position in waste discharge and treatment. With the improvement of people's awareness of environmental protection and the improvement of environmental laws and regulations, green development will become the main theme of the development of China's coatings industry. Water-borne industrial coatings, solvent-free coatings and high-solid coatings have become an important direction of the development of green anticorrosive coatings at present.
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